前回のブログで、国がしようとしている働き方改革の目的とその内容を書いてきましたが、この国の考え方は中小企業の経営にも役立てられます

 

 すなわち労働力不足の問題は、中小企業の大きな経営課題でもあるからです。

 

 今やほとんどの職種で、求人を出しても応募が無い、すぐ辞めてしまうなど人手不足に悩まされています。これからの時代は発想を転換し、いろんなやり方で人手不足を補っていく知恵が求められます。

 

 

労働市場の外にいる人を引き込む

 国の「労働市場の外にいる人を労働市場に引っ張り込む」という考え方は、中小企業の人手不足解消にも使えます。例えば「育児や介護などで働き方に制限がある人を雇う」ということになるでしょう。長らく日本の会社はフルタイムの正社員を前提に雇用管理がされてきた面が大きいですが、これからはそうした「働き方の面でスネに傷を持つ人たち」も積極的に採用していかなければ乗り切れないでしょう。そのための具体的方法としては、短時間正社員制度やフレックスタイム制を導入したり、テレワークをやってみたり、仕事と家庭を両立しながら働けるやり方が考えられます。

 

 自社の正社員が妊娠したり親の介護が必要な状態になったときも、辞めていってしまわないように、休業中も情報交換を欠かさないなどして休業明けに復帰しやすいようにする工夫が求められます。

 

 また高齢者や障害者が働けるように職場の安全に配慮したり。また外国人の雇用も選択肢に入ってくるでしょう。外国人を雇用したときは、言葉の壁だけでなく日本の文化に合わせてもらうような措置が必要になってきます。

 

 

生産性を上げる

 人手不足対策として「社員1人あたりの生産性を上げる」ことにも取り組みが必要でしょう。今までと同じ仕事を今までより短い時間でこなせるように、残業時間に絶対的な上限を設けて意識改革をしたり、社内のIT化を一層進めたり、顧客との面談は極力WEB会議室を使い移動時間を無くすなどの取組が考えられます。

 

 

生産性の計算方法

 生産性については、労働局が出している雇用関係の助成金でも、今や多くの助成金で「生産性要件」といって、「3年前と比べて生産性が6%以上上がっていること」を助成額の上乗せ要件にしています。労働局が「生産性の計算式」を提示していますので、助成金を使う使わないは別として、自社の生産性を図る指標としてお勧めしています。

 

☆生産性の計算式☆

 

付加価値(営業利益+人件費+減価償却費+動産・不動産賃借料+租税公課) ÷ 労働者数

 

 雇用助成金の生産性要件としては、この値が「3年前と比べて6%以上上がっていること」とされています。

 自社での生産性向上に取り組むときも、目安としてこの「3年で6%アップ」を目標値に掲げると良いと思います。

 

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